(1) The invertebrate ancestors of vertebrates had gill slits, but these were used primarily for filter feeding; these organisms took up most of the oxygen they needed through the skin.(2) Most endophytes produce N-rich alkaloid compounds that deter or poison a range of vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores.(3) Minerals, mushrooms, higher and lower plants, invertebrate and vertebrate animals make up the richest museum collection on the Balkan Peninsula.(4) He then told us that these first life-forms evolved into bacteria and then into the invertebrate animals, as well as plants.(5) While ubiquitous among vertebrates, it occurs less frequently in invertebrate phyla.(6) Odorant-binding proteins are present in the olfactory systems of both vertebrate and invertebrate animals, but these gene families are not related.(7) Given the high heritability of sideroxylonal and its effectiveness as a deterrent against vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores, it is surprising that undefended trees persist in the population.(8) Returning to the United States in 1894, he joined the faculty of the University of California, teaching and carrying out research in both vertebrate and invertebrate paleontology.(9) We vertebrates do not stand higher and later than our invertebrate cousins, for all ‘advanced’ animal phyla made their first appearance in the fossil record at essentially the same time.(10) Over the last decade, we have become increasingly aware that environmental contaminants act through multiple mechanisms to alter endocrine functioning in vertebrate and invertebrate species.(11) Anhydrobiosis is a state of suspended animation certain invertebrate animals enter in response to severe drought.(12) Amphioxus is the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates, and is key to understanding the evolution of vertebrates from an invertebrate ancestor.(13) Sea cucumbers, invertebrate animals of the phylum Echinodermata, might hold out some hope for the afflicted.(14) Echinoderms are considered the invertebrate group most closely related to the vertebrates.(15) Vertebrate and invertebrate animals, land plants, and protists are all represented as fossils in the Solnhofen Limestone.(16) They are a common adaptation in organisms that use internal fertilization, and have arisen multiple times in a number of vertebrate and invertebrate lineages.
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