(1) The logarithm remains an important mathematical function but its use in calculating has gone for ever.(2) The relationship between water potential and vapor pressure is well defined also, being proportional to the logarithm of the ratio of actual vapor pressure to the saturation vapor pressure.(3) It was a 17th century Scottish baron, John Napier, who first discovered the power of the logarithm as an important function in mathematics.(4) The coefficients of this regression are the logarithm of the odds ratio.(5) proportional to the logarithm to the base 10 of the concentration(6) Initial assignment to linkage groups was based on the logarithm of the odds ratio for each possible marker pair.(7) He invented logarithms independently of Napier using a totally different approach.(8) Vega wrote on artillery but he is best remembered for his tables of logarithms and trigonometric functions.(9) Other examples are negative numbers, complex numbers, trigonometry, raising to powers, logarithms , and the beginnings of calculus.(10) Other topics to interest Carslaw throughout his career, which we have not touched on above, included an interest in non-euclidean geometry, Green's functions and the history of Napier's logarithms .(11) We can use arithmetics with different bases, fractions, decimals, logarithms , powers, or simply words.(12) The link between the harmonic series and logarithms is even more intimate.(13) They sketch a normalization algorithm, which is based on computing logarithms of transition matrices which they approximate by power series.(14) The first tabulates logarithms of the sine, cosine, tangent and cotangent functions at 1 intervals and shows how to solve triangles using logarithmic functions.(15) The computation of logarithms had made him aware of the inaccuracy of human calculation around 1812.(16) Prior to any statistical analysis, variables with non-normal distributions were transformed to logarithms , and percentage values were arcsin transformed.